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USAARL

UNITED STATES ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY

Technical Reports


A technical report is a technical document that records and disseminates methods and results from research studies and research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities. Technical reports are USAARL's principal method of in-depth reporting on technical subjects that are of interest not only to the department, agency, or command sponsoring the work, but also to external groups and laboratories in government, academia, and industry. Technical reports may vary in type, to include technical reports that present the findings of research or analyses or that provide guidance or instruction on matters important to the DoD, journal articles (open access and embargoed text) that have been published under an open access agreement with the publisher or published under a Creative Commons license, conference proceedings that include whole collections of papers presented at a symposium or workshop, and conference papers that could include an individual paper, briefing charts, or a poster presented at a workshop or symposium. For inquiries related to USAARL's technical report(s), contact usarmy-usaarl-sic@health.mil.

Featured Reports

For more reports, please visit the technical reports archive page.

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DTIC #:AD1182730
TITLE:Evaluation of Litter Carriage Performance and Post-Carry Fatigue Effects in Prolonged Combat Field Care Environments (Part 1): Preliminary Design Considerations, Specifications, and Recommendations for Exoskeleton Feasibility, Suitability, and Efficacy in Dismounted Military Casualty Transport Scenarios
AUTHOR(s):Madison, A. M., Chambers, T. T., Stewart, A. S., Chancey, V. C.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Litter transport is a standard procedure for initial military casualty evacuation and consists of two- or four-person teams transporting a casualty over a long distance or carrying multiple casualties over a short distance. The litter team may be required to provide critical care while also engaging in combat to protect themselves and the patient. Musculoskeletal disorders can develop over time due to frequent, repetitive, or extended litter transport scenarios. The use of an assistive device, such as an exoskeleton, has the potential to improve combat performance following litter carry and improve evacuation times of the injured. Currently, there are no assistive devices integrated into the standard Military Equipment Set or litter carriage procedures, and exoskeleton research for military patient transport scenarios is scarce. The U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory conducted a comprehensive review of the state of exoskeleton research to determine essential preliminary design considerations as well as provide preliminary recommendations for exoskeleton technology focused on improving or enhancing dismounted military casualty transport scenarios.
KEYWORDS:litter transport, litter carriage, military casualty evacuation and transport, assistive devices, exoskeleton, musculoskeletal disorders
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DTIC #:AD1180422
TITLE:Forward Operating Base Expert Telemedicine Resource Utilizing Mobile Application for Trauma (FOXTROT)
AUTHOR(s):Chung, R., Legault, G., Stowe, J., Miller, K., Moccia, M., Cooper, M., Little, J., Gensheimer, W. G.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Introduction: During Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), 10-15% of combat-related trauma injuries involved the eye. During Operation Resolute Support (ORS) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS), 7% of patients presenting to the emergency department required ophthalmic surgical intervention, and 13% of trauma patients requiring surgical intervention underwent an ophthalmic surgical procedure. The military ophthalmologist's primary mission is to be prepared to manage ocular trauma, especially in an austere environment. However, with operations across the globe, military personnel are deployed across great distances often in remote locations with limited communication capabilities and no access to ophthalmic care. The primary purpose of our research was to develop an operationally secure, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant, mobile application (mApp) to provide ophthalmic care to any remote deployed location through teleophthalmology called Forward Operating Base Expert Telemedicine Resource Utilizing Mobile Application for Trauma (FOXTROT).
KEYWORDS:Teleophthalmology, telemedicine, ophthalmology, emergency care, military telemedicine
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DTIC #:AD1182729
TITLE:Behavioral Sound Localization for Video-Derived, Personalized Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs)
AUTHOR(s):Connor, K., Davis, S., Jones, H., Smalt, C.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Three-dimensional (3D) audio is commonplace in augmented or virtual reality environments, and is used to simulate the direction of arrival for sounds presented over headphones. The Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF) enables 3D audio by characterizing how sound is received from a sound source in every direction. Optimal sound localization performance with HRTF-based 3D audio is thought to require personalized HRTFs because the localization cues are dependent on the size and shape of the head and pinnae. In this work, we propose a pipeline to generate HRTFs from high-resolution smartphone videos of the head and ears, and we validate the localization performance of the resulting HRTFs through human-subject behavioral experiments. To create a personalized 3D HRTF, a video was taken of a subject's head and torso, left ear, and right ear using a smartphone camera. Simulations of the acoustic pressure waves at the ear canals were performed in COMSOL using the boundary element method, taking approximately one hour per ear to complete. Preliminary virtual sound localization results were obtained on nine subjects under three listening conditions: open ear, a gold-standard generic HRTF, and the personalized HRTF derived from a smartphone video. Results show that our pipeline-derived HRTFs result in increased localization accuracy in comparison to the generic HRTF for some subjects.
KEYWORDS:Personalized HRTFs, sound localization, spatial audio, 3D audio
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DTIC #:AD1180420
TITLE:Interim Recommendations for Cognitive Enhancers for Future Vertical Lift Operators and Aircrew
AUTHOR(s):Jordayne Wilkins, Amanda Kelley, Kathryn Feltman
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Due to the modernization of the U.S. Army's rotary-wing aircraft to the future vertical lift platform, higher cognitive workloads will be demanded of aircrew members and operators. Cognitive enhancement tools can be used to sustain attention and performance during long-duration flights and missions. Research findings from a systematic literature review and experimental studies determined the efficacy of specific cognitive enhancement tools and their success in military operational environments.
KEYWORDS:Transcranial electrical stimulation, tDCS, Modafinil, mixed amphetamine Salts, Future Vertical Lift, FVL
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DTIC #:AD1180673
TITLE:Enroute Care in Confined Spaces: Medic Posture Study
AUTHOR(s):Lloyd, A., Kinsler, R.1, Caruso, K., Kroening, L., Molles, J.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:The confined space of common medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) configurations requires strenuous positions and painful postures of Critical Care Flight Paramedics (CCFPs) during patient loading and unloading during en route care. The goal of this study was to identify areas for design improvements or loading techniques to limit awkward or painful postures exhibited by the CCFP that may lead to injury or musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects performed patient loading and unloading on a simulated MEDEVAC interior while motion data was collected through a reflective marker-based motion capture system. The data from the litter pan position evaluations document was examined to identify movements or postures that cause pain or discomfort. Participants were asked to rate the difficulty on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 meaning completed without any awkward postures and 5 meaning the trial required constant awkward postures. The data shows that for all of the litter pan positions there was at least one posture mentioned as uncomfortable, and one area of the body mentioned as being negatively affected. These findings will contribute to the development of future MEDEVAC platforms and help develop strategies to prevent injuries to the CCFPs during patient loading and unloading procedures.
KEYWORDS:Lifting, motion tracking, MEDEVAC, CCFP, litter systems, patient handling, posture
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DTIC #:AD1182728
TITLE:Efficacy of Medical Device Alarm Integration into a Simulated H-60 Integrated Communication System
AUTHOR(s):Kroening, L., Kinsler, R., Molles, J., Lloyd, A.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Objective: The goal was to study the efficacy of incorporating audible medical device alarms into a simulated aircraft Intercommunication Set (ICS). The effect of integrating these alarms on care-provided and time delegation was examined. Subjective data was also collected from the subjects regarding the benefits, drawbacks, and improvements they recognized during participation. Methods: Subjects performed patient care tasks for two 30-minute scenarios. Each scenario had two priority-level patients, which were preprogrammed to have four decompensation events each. During one configuration the audio alarms were integrated into the subject's ICS, and the other was non-integrated (the current standard). Testing took place in an HH-60 simulator with a Baseline Medical Interior (BMI) litter system. The subjects were given all supplies in the current Medical Equipment Set (MES) and given time to configure the interior of the simulated aircraft as they normally would. The patients were simulated with SimMan3G manikins, which displayed vitals on Zoll Propaq MD patient monitors via a Dynasthetics VitalsBridge 300. Subjects wore a Head Gear Unit Number 56 Personal (HGU-56P) helmet with Communication Ear Plugs (CEPs).
KEYWORDS:Integrated Communication Set, ICS, communication ear plugs, CEPs, U.S. Army, helicopter, HH-60, Baseline Medical Interior, BMI, Medical Evacuation, MEDEVAC, patient care, medical device, monitor, vital signs
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DTIC #:AD1180418
TITLE:FOXTROT Mobile Eye Care App
AUTHOR(s):Stowe, J.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Introduction: During Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), 10-15% of combat-related trauma injuries involved the eye. During Operation Resolute Support (ORS) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS), 7% of patients presenting to the emergency department required ophthalmic surgical intervention, and 13% of trauma patients requiring surgical intervention underwent an ophthalmic surgical procedure. The military ophthalmologist's primary mission is to be prepared to manage ocular trauma, especially in an austere environment. However, with operations across the globe, military personnel are deployed across great distances often in remote locations with limited communication capabilities and no access to ophthalmic care. The primary purpose of our research was to develop an operationally secure, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant, mobile application (mApp) to provide ophthalmic care to any remote deployed location through teleophthalmology called Forward Operating Base Expert Telemedicine Resource Utilizing Mobile Application for Trauma (FOXTROT).
KEYWORDS:Teleophthalmology, telemedicine, ophthalmology, emergency care, military telemedicine
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DTIC #:AD1180357
TITLE:Evaluating Pupillometric Indicators of Cognitive Workload and Autonomic Tone
AUTHOR(s):Aura, C., Temme, L., McAtee, A., Vogl, J., O'Brien, K., Hayes, A., Bowers, B., Baugher, K., & St. Onge, P.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Eye Tracking can provide insight into operator state and health through passive, non-invasive measurement, and may be an important instrument in operator state monitoring. Developments in eye tracking technology have enabled researchers to measure gaze and pupillary behavior in a wider range of settings. Changes in pupil diameter reflect the tone of the autonomic nervous system, potentially revealing changes in cognitive workload, arousal, and stress. One of the inherent challenges is isolating the luminance response of the pupil from the autonomic and cognitively driven responses. The intent of this study was to isolate the pupillary response to workload from the pupillary light reflex. We used a desktop-mounted, single-camera system to capture changes in pupil size while participants performed a cognitive task of increasing difficulty in continuously changing luminance conditions.
KEYWORDS:Eye tracking, aviation, flight simulation, cognitive workload, operator state monitoring
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DTIC #:AD1180356
TITLE:Evaluating Eye Tracking in Simulated Aviation Environments for U.S. Army Operator State Monitoring
AUTHOR(s):Aura,C., Vogl, J., McAtee, A., Feltman, K., Temme, L., & St. Onge, P.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Developments in eye tracking technology have enabled researchers' better access to gaze and pupillary behavior in a wider range of settings. Changes in gaze patterns and eye movement dynamics, allow the assessment of cognitive workload, fatigue, and situational awareness in military operational environments, including within the aircraft. Changes in pupil diameter reflect the tone of the autonomic nervous system, also potentially revealing changes in cognitive workload, arousal, and stress. Eye Tracking can provide unique insights into operator state and physiological condition through passive, non-invasive measurement, and may be an important instrument in the operator state monitoring toolkit of tomorrow's military aviation needs. Head-mounted systems may be better suited to operational research.
KEYWORDS:Eye tracking, aviation, flight simulation, cognitive workload, operator state monitoring
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DTIC #:AD1170623
TITLE:Defining Normal Cervical Spine Range of Motion In Rotary-Wing Pilots (Part 2): A Method of Estimating UH-60 Aviator Cervical Spine Range of Motion Using Head Position Data from an Optical-Based Inertial Tracker
AUTHOR(s):Williams, S. T., Madison, A., & Chancey, V. C.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:A human subject research protocol was performed by the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) to evaluate UH-60 aviator cervical spine range of motion (CROM) in controlled real and simulated flight environments. Nine subjects performed one-hour flight missions in a UH-60 aircraft, and the same mission was performed in the USAARL NUH-60 flight simulator at least two days after the initial flight. Subjects were equipped with a head tracker clipped on the night vision goggle mount of their flight helmet to capture head angles in each plane of motion. Flight parameters and instructed maneuvers were the same between both flights. The data showed that actual and simulated flight were biomechanically equivalent in regards to specific flight maneuvers, but neck twisting was statistically different when analyzing cumulative neck posture over the entire flight. The data also revealed that the general population norms for CROM statistically exceed the requirements of UH-60 aviators engaged in routine flight. It was also found that UH-60 flights require statistically similar amounts of neck bending and flexing compared to AH-64 flights, but statistically different amounts of neck twisting.
KEYWORDS:CROM, cervical spine, range of motion, UH-60, black Hawk, pilot, aviator, head tracking


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Last Modified Date: 2022-07-25